Status of Tax Treaties

# Convention Between Canada and the Republic of Tunisia

For the Avoidance of Double Taxation With Respect to Taxes on Income and on Capital

This electronic version of the Canada - Tunisia Income Tax Convention signed on February 10, 1982 is provided for convenience of reference only and has no official sanction.

The Government of Canada and the Government of the Republic of Tunisia desiring to conclude a Convention for the avoidance of double taxation with respect to taxes on income and on capital, have agreed as follows:

## I. Scope of the Convention

### Article I

#### Personal Scope

This Convention shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

### Article II

#### Taxes Covered

1. This Convention shall apply to taxes on income and on capital imposed on behalf of each Contracting State, irrespective of the manner in which they are levied.

2. There shall be regarded as taxes on income and on capital all taxes imposed on total income, on total capital, or on elements of income or of capital, including taxes on gains from the alienation of movable or immovable property, taxes on the total amounts of wages or salaries paid by enterprises, as well as taxes on capital appreciation.

3. The existing taxes to which the Convention shall apply are, in particular:

a) in the case of Canada: the income taxes imposed by the Government of Canada (hereinafter referred to as "Canadian tax");

b) in the case of Tunisia: the tax on business income (l'impôt de la patente); the tax on income from non-commercial occupations (l'impôt sur les bénéfices des professions non commerciales); the tax on wages and salaries (l'impôt sur les traitements et les salaires); the agricultural tax (l'impôt agricole); the tax on income from securities (l'impôt sur le revenu des valeurs mobilières); the tax on income from debts, deposits, guarantees and current accounts (l'impôt sur le revenu des créances, depôts, cautionnements et comptes courants -- I.R.C.); the State tax on personal income (la contribution personnelle d'État); (hereinafter referred to as "Tunisian tax").

4. The Convention shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes and to taxes on capital which are imposed after the date of signature of this Convention in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The Contracting States shall notify each other of changes which have been made in their respective taxation laws.

## II. Definitions

### Article III

#### General Definitions

1. In this Convention, unless the context otherwise requires:

a) the term "Canada", used in a geographical sense, means the territory of Canada, including any area beyond the territorial waters of Canada, which, under the laws of Canada and in accordance with international law, is an area within which Canada may exercise rights with respect to the sea-bed and sub-soil and their natural resources;

b) the term "Tunisia", used in a geographical sense, means the territory of the Republic of Tunisia, including any area beyond the territorial waters of Tunisia, which, under the laws of Tunisia and in accordance with international law, is an area within which Tunisia may exercise rights with respect to the sea-bed and sub-soil and their natural resources;

c) the terms "a Contracting State" and "the other Contracting State" mean, as the context requires, Canada or Tunisia;

d) the term "person" includes an individual, a trust, a company, a partnership and any other body of persons, and, in the case of Canada, an estate;

e) the term "company" means any body corporate or any entity which is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes; in French, the term "société" also means a "corporation" within the meaning of Canadian law;

f) the terms "enterprise of a Contracting State" and "enterprise of the other Contracting State" mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;

g) the term "competent authority" means:

(i) in the case of Canada; the Minister of National Revenue or his authorized representative;

(ii) in the case of Tunisia, the Minister of Finance or his authorized representative;

h) the term "tax" means Canadian tax or Tunisian tax, as the context requires;

i) the term "national" means:

(i) any individual possessing the nationality of a Contracting State;

(ii) any legal person, partnership and association deriving its status as such from the law in force in a Contracting State.

2. As regards the application of the Convention by a Contracting State any term not otherwise defined shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning which it has under the laws of that Contracting State relating to the taxes which are the subject of the Convention.

### Article IV

#### Fiscal Domicile

1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term "resident of a Contracting State" means any person who, under the law of that State, is liable to taxation therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature.

2. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then this case shall be determined in accordance with the following rules:

a) he shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State in which he has a permanent home available to him. If he has a permanent home available to him in both Contracting States, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State with which his personal and economic relations are closest (hereinafter referred to as his "centre of vital interests");

b) if the Contracting State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he has not a permanent home available to him in either Contracting State, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State in which he has an habitual abode;

c) if he has an habitual abode in both Contracting States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State of which he is a national;

d) if he is a national of both Contracting States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.

3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall by mutual agreement endeavour to settle the question and to determine the mode of application of this Convention to such person.

### Article V

#### Permanent Establishment

1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term "permanent establishment" means a fixed place of business in which the business of the enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.

2. The term "permanent establishment" shall include especially:

a) a place of management;

b) a branch;

c) an office;

d) a factory;

e) a workshop;

f) a mine, quarry or other place of extraction of natural resources;

g) a building site or construction project;

h) a temporary assembly project or supervisory activities in connection therewith, where such project or activity continues for a period of more than three months.

3. The term "permanent establishment" shall be deemed not to include:

a) the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;

b) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery;

c) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;

d) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise, or for collecting information, for the enterprise;

e) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of advertising, for the supply of information, for scientific research, or for similar activities which have a preparatory or auxiliary character, for the enterprise.

4. A person -- other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 5 applies -- acting in a Contracting State on behalf of an enterprise of the other Contracting State shall be deemed to be a permanent establishment in the first-mentioned State:

a) if he has, and habitually exercises in that State, an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise, unless his activities are limited to the purchase of goods or merchandise for the enterprise; or

b) if he maintains in the first-mentioned State a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise from which he habitually fills orders on behalf of the enterprise.

5. An enterprise of a Contracting State shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that other State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, where such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business.

6. An insurance enterprise of a Contracting State shall, except in regard to reinsurance, be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other State, if it collects premiums in the territory of that State or insures risks situated therein through an employee or through a representative who is not an agent of independent status within the meaning of paragraph 5.

7. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute for either company a permanent establishment of the other.

## III. Taxation of Income

### Article VI

#### Income from Immovable Property

1. Income from immovable property including income from agriculture or forestry may be taxed in the Contracting State in which such property is situated.

2. For the purposes of this Convention, the term "immovable property" shall be defined in accordance with the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources; ships, boats and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.

3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property and to profits from the alienation of such property.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of professional services.

### Article VII

1. The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on or has carried on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to:

a) that permanent establishment; or

b) sales of goods or merchandise of the same or similar kind as those sold, or to other business activities of the same or similar kind as those effected, through that permanent establishment.

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.

3. In the determination of the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed those deductible expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment including executive and general administrative expenses, whether incurred in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere.

4. No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.

5. For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.

6. Where profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Convention, then, the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.

7. The provisions of this Article shall also apply to the participations of a partner in the profits of an enterprise organized as a defacto partnership (société de fait) or an arrangement in participation (association en participation).

### Article VIII

#### Shipping and Air Transport

1. Profits from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable only in the Contracting State in which the place of effective management of the enterprise is situated.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 and Article VII, profits derived from the operation of ships or aircraft used principally to transport passengers or goods exclusively between places in a Contracting State may be taxed in that State.

3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall also apply to profits referred to in those paragraphs derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from its participation in a pool, a joint business or in an international operating agency.

### Article IX

#### Associated Enterprises

1. Where:

a) an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or

b) the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,

and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

2. Where profits on which an enterprise of a Contracting State has been charged to tax in that State are also included in the profits of an enterprise of the other Contracting State and taxed accordingly, and the profits so included are profits if the conditions made between the enterprises had been those which would have accrued to the enterprise of the other State, if the conditions made between the enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then the first-mentioned State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of tax charged on those profits in the first-mentioned State.

In determining such an adjustment due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Convention in relation to the nature of the income.

3. A Contracting State shall not change the profits of an enterprise in the circumstances referred to in paragraph 1 after the expiry of the time limits provided in its national laws and, in any case, after five years from the end of the year in which the profits which would be subject to such change would have accrued to an enterprise of that State. This paragraph shall not apply in the case of fraud, wilful default or neglect.

### Article X

#### Dividends

1. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such dividends may be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, and according to the law of that State; but where the resident of the other Contracting State is the beneficial owner of the dividends, the tax so charged shall not exceed 15% of the gross amount of the dividends. The provisions of this paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company on the profits out of which the dividends are paid.

3. The term "dividends" as used in this Article means income from shares, "jouissance" shares or "jouissance" rights, mining shares, founders' shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income assimilated to income from shares by the taxation law of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.

4. The provisions of paragraph 2 shall not apply if the resident of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State professional services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding by virtue of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such a case, the provisions of Article VII or Article XIV, as the case may be, shall apply.

5. Where a company is a resident of a Contracting State, the other Contracting State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, no subject the company's undistributed profits to a tax on undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State.

6. Notwithstanding anything in this Convention, each Contracting State shall levy on the earnings of a company, being a resident of the other Contracting State, attributable to a permanent establishment situated in the first-mentioned State, a tax in addition to the tax which would be chargeable on the earnings of a company which is a national of the first-mentioned State, provided that any additional tax so imposed shall not exceed 15% of the amount of such earnings which have not been subjected to such additional tax in previous taxation years. For the purpose of this provision, the term "earnings" means the profits attributable to a permanent establishment in a Contracting State in a year and previous years after deducting there from all taxes, other than the additional tax referred to herein, imposed on such profits by that State; however, it does not include the profits attributable to a permanent establishment of a company in a Contracting State earned in a year during which the business of the company was not carried on principally in that State.

### Article XI

#### Interest

1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such interest may be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises, and according to the law of that State; but the tax so charged shall, provided that the interest is taxable in the other Contracting State, not exceed 15% of the gross amount of the interest.

3. The term "interest" as used in this Article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage, and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor's profits, an in particular, income from government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures, as well as income assimilated to income from money lent by the taxation law of the State in which the income arises. However, the term "interest" does not include income dealt with in Article X.

4. The provisions of paragraph 2 shall not apply if the recipient of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State professional services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such a case, the provisions of Article VII or Article XIV, as the case may be, shall apply.

5. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a political subdivision, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and that interest is borne by that permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment of fixed base is situated.

6. Where, owing to a special relationship between the payer and the recipient or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest paid, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the recipient in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In that case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the law of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

7. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2,

a) interest arising in Tunisia and paid to a resident of Canada shall be taxable only in Canada if it is paid in respect of a loan made, guaranteed or insured, or a credit extended, guaranteed or insured by the Export Development Corporation; and

b) interest arising in Canada and paid to a resident of Tunisia shall be taxable only in Tunisia if it is paid in respect of a loan made, guaranteed or insured, or a credit extended, guaranteed or insured by such institution as is specified and agreed in letters exchanged between the competent authorities of the Contracting States.

### Article XII

#### Royalties

1. Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such royalties may be taxed in the Contracting State in which they a rise, and according to the law of that State; but the tax so charged shall, provided that the royalties are taxable in the other Contracting State, not exceed:

a) 20% of the gross amount of patent royalties and royalties for the use or the right to use trade marks, motion picture films and films or videotapes for use in connection with television, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial, scientific or harbour equipment; and

b) 15% of the gross amount of the royalties in all other cases.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2, copyright royalties and other like payments in respect of the production or reproduction of any literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work (but not including royalties in respect of motion picture films and films or videotapes for use in connection with television) arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State who is subject to tax thereon shall be taxable only in that other State.

4. The term "royalties" as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright, patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial or scientific equipment, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience, and includes payments of any kind in respect of motion picture films and works on films or videotapes for use in connection with television, and payments for technical and economic studies.

5. The provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 shall not apply if the recipient of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State professional services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such a case, the provisions of Article VII or Article XIV, as the case may be, shall apply.

6. Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a political subdivision, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or fixed base in connection with which the obligation to pay the royalties was incurred, and those royalties are borne by that permanent establishment or fixed base in connection with which the obligation to pay the royalties was incurred, and those royalties are borne by that permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

7. Where, owing to a special relationship between the payer and the recipient or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties paid, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the recipient in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In that case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the law of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

### Article XIII

#### Gains from the Alienation of Property

1. Gains from the alienation of immovable property may be taxed in the Contracting State in which such property is situated.

2. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing professional services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or together with the whole enterprise) or of such a fixed base may be taxed in the other State. However, gains from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic and movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State in which such property is taxable according to paragraph 3 of Article XXI.

3. Gains from the alienation of shares of a company, the property of which consists principally of immovable property situated in a Contracting State, may be taxed in that State. Gains from the alienation of an interest in a partnership or a trust, the property of which consists principally of immovable property situated in a Contracting State, may be taxed in that State.

4. Gains from the alienation of any property, other than those mentioned in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.

5. The provisions of paragraph 4 shall not affect the right of either of the Contracting States to levy, according to its law, a tax on gains from the alienation of any property derived by an individual who is a resident of the other Contracting State and has been a resident of the first-mentioned State at any time during the five years immediately preceding the alienation of the property.

### Article XIV

#### Independent Personal Services

1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other independent activities of a similar character shall be taxable only in that State. However, in the following circumstances such income may be taxed in the other Contracting State, that is to say:

a) if he has a fixed base regularly available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities; in that case, only so much of the income as is attributable to that fixed base may be taxed in that other Contracting State; or

b) if his stay in the other Contracting State is for a period or periods amounting to or exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in the fiscal year; or

c) if the remuneration for his services in the other Contracting State derived from residents of that Contracting State exceeds three thousand Canadian dollars ($3,000) or its equivalent in Tunisian dinars in the fiscal year, notwithstanding that his stay in that State is for a period or periods amounting to less than 183 days during the fiscal year. 2. The term "professional services" includes independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities or physicians, lawyers, engineer, architects, dentists and accountants. ### Article XV #### Dependent Personal Services 1. Subject to the provisions of Articles XVI and XVIII, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived there from may be taxed in that other State. 2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if the recipient is present in the other Contracting State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in the fiscal year concerned, and either a) the remuneration earned in the other Contracting State in the fiscal year concerned does not exceed three thousand Canadian dollars ($3,000) or its equivalent in Tunisian dinars; or

b) the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of the other State, and such remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in the other State.

3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic by an enterprise of a Contracting State, shall be taxable only in the State in which the place of effective management of the enterprise is situated.

### Article XVI

#### Directors' Fees

Directors' fees and similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors or a similar organ of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.

### Article XVII

#### Artistes and Athletes

1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles VII, XIV and XV, income derived by entertainers, such as theatre, motion picture, radio or television artistes, and musicians, and by athletes, from their personal activities as such may be taxed in the Contracting State in which these activities are exercised.

2. Where income in respect of personal activities as such of an entertainer or athlete accrues not to that entertainer or athlete himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles VII, XIV and XV, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or athlete are exercised.

3. The provisions of paragraph 2 shall not apply if it is established that neither the entertainer or the athlete nor persons associated with him or related to him, participate directly or indirectly in the profits of the person referred to in that paragraph.

### Article XVIII

#### Government Service

1. a) Remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to any individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or local authority thereof shall be taxable only in that State.

b) However, such remuneration shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the recipient is a resident if the services are rendered in that State and the recipient did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of performing the services.

2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to remuneration in respect of services rendered in connection with any trade or business carried on by one of the Contracting States or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof.

### Article XIX

#### Students

Payments which a student, apprentice or business trainee who is, or was immediately before visiting one of the Contracting States, a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned Contracting State solely for the purpose of his education or training receives for the purpose of his maintenance, education or training shall not be taxed in that first-mentioned State, provided that such payments are made to him from sources out side that State.

### Article XX

#### Income not Expressly Mentioned

1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of this Article, items of income of a resident of a Contracting State which are not expressly mentioned in the foregoing Articles of this Convention shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.

2. However, if such income is derived by a resident of a Contracting State from sources in the other Contracting State, such income may also be taxed in the State in which it arises, and according to the law of that State. However, in the case of income from an estate or trust, the tax so charged shall, provided that the income is taxable in the Contracting State in which the recipient resides, not exceed 15% of the gross amount of the income.

## IV. Taxation of Capital

### Article XXI

#### Capital

1. Capital represented by immovable property may be taxed in the Contracting State in which such property is situated.

2. Capital represented by movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment of an enterprise, or by movable property pertaining to a fixed base used for the performance of professional services, may be taxed in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

3. Ships and aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State in international traffic and movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships and aircraft, shall be taxable only in that State.

4. All other elements of capital of a resident of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State.

## V.  Methods for Prevention of Double Taxation

### Article XXII

#### Elimination of Double Taxation

1. In the case of Canada, double taxation shall be avoided as follows:

a) Subject to the existing provisions of the law of Canada regarding the deduction from tax payable in Canada of tax paid in a territory outside Canada and to any subsequent modification of those provisions -- which shall not affect the general principle hereof -- and unless a greater deduction or relief is provided under the laws of Canada, tax payable in Tunisia on profits, income or gains arising in Tunisia shall be deducted from any Canadian tax payable in respect of such profits, income or gains.

b) Subject to the existing provisions of the law of Canada regarding the determination of the exempt surplus of a foreign affiliate and to any subsequent modification of those provisions -- which shall not affect the general principle hereof -- for the purpose of computing Canadian tax, a company resident in Canada shall be allowed to deduct in computing its taxable income any dividend received by it out of the exempt surplus of a foreign affiliate resident in Tunisia.

2. In the case of Tunisia, where a resident derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, may be taxed in Canada, Tunisia shall deduct from its tax on income of such resident an amount equal to the tax paid in Canada. The deduction shall not, however, exceed that part of the tax on income as computed before the deduction is given, which is appropriate to the income which may be taxed in Canada.

3. For the purposes of paragraph 1(a), tax payable in Tunisia by a company which is a resident of Canada

a) in respect of profits attributable to a trade or business carried on by it in Tunisia, or

b) in respect of dividends or interest received by it from a company which is a resident of Tunisia.

shall be deemed to include any amount which would have been payable as Tunisian tax for any year but for an exemption from, or reduction of, tax granted for that year or any part thereof under:

c) any of the following provisions, that is to say:

Decree of 19 September 1946 on Letters Patent;

Law 62-75 of 31 December 1962 on Fiscal Arrangements in favour of Profits or Reinvestments;

Decree of 2 September 1966 concerning Touristic Investments;

Law 68-3 of 8 March 1968 for the Encouragement of Investments in South-Tunisia;

Law 69-35 of 26 June 1969 on the Investment Code;

Law 72-38 of 27 April 1972 creating a Special Regime for Manufacturing Industries;

Law 74-74 of 3 August 1974 concerning Investments in the Manufacturing Industry;

so far as they were in force on, and have not been modified since, the date of signature of this Convention, or have been modified only in minor respects so as not to affect their general character; and except to the extent that any of the said provisions has the effect of exempting or relieving a source of income for a period in excess of ten years;

d) any other provision which may subsequently be made granting an exemption or reduction of tax which is agreed by the competent authorities of the Contracting States to be of a substantially similar character, if it has not been modified thereafter or has been modified only in minor respects so as not to affect is general character.

4. For the purposes of this Article, profits, income or gains of a resident of a Contracting State which are taxed in the other Contracting State in accordance with this Convention shall be deemed to arise from sources in that other State.

## VI. Special Provisions

### Article XXIII

#### Non-discrimination

1. The nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances are or may be subjected.

2. Stateless persons who are residents of one of the Contracting States shall not be subjected in either Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nation also the State concerned in the same circumstances are or may be subjected.

3. The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities.

4. Nothing in this Article shall be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents.

5. Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises of the first-mentioned State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of a third State, are or may be subjected.

6. In this Article, the term "taxation" means taxes which are the subject of this Convention.

### Article XXIV

#### Mutual Agreement Procedure

1. Where a resident of a Contracting State considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with this Convention, he may, without prejudice to the remedies provided by the national laws of those States, address to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident an application in writing stating the grounds for claiming the revision of such taxation. To be admissible, the said application must be submitted within two years from the notification of the action which gives rise to taxation not in accordance with the Convention.

2. The competent authority referred to in paragraph 1 shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at an appropriate solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation not in accordance with the Convention.

3. A Contracting State shall not, after the expiry of the time limits provided in its national laws and, in any case, after five years from the end of the taxable period in which the income concerned has accrued, increase the tax base of a resident of either of the Contracting States by including therein items of income which have also been charged to tax in the other Contracting State. This paragraph shall not apply in the case of fraud, wilful default or neglect.

4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Convention. In particular, the competent authorities of the Contracting States may consult together to endeavour to agree:

a) to the same attribution of profits to a resident of a Contracting State and its permanent establishment situated in the other Contracting State;

b) to the same allocation of income between a resident of a Contracting State and any associated person provided for in Article IX.

5. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Convention.

6. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs. When it seems advisable in order to reach agreement to have an oral exchange of opinions, such exchange may take place through a Commission consisting of representatives of the competent authorities of the Contracting States.

### Article XXV

#### Exchange of Information

1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is necessary for the carrying out of this Convention or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by this Convention insofar as the taxation thereunder is in accordance with this Convention.

Any information so exchanged shall be treated as secret and shall not be disclosed to any persons or authorities other than those concerned with the assessment or collection of the taxes which are the subject of this Convention.

2. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose on one of the Contracting States the obligation:

a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws or the administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;

b) to supply particulars which are not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;

c) to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secretor trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public).

### Article XXVI

#### Diplomatic and Consular Officials

1. Nothing in this Convention shall affect the fiscal privileges of members of diplomatic or consular missions under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

2. Notwithstanding Article IV of this Convention, an individual who is a member of a diplomatic, consular or permanent mission of a Contracting State which is situated in the other Contracting State or in a third State shall be deemed for the purposes of this Convention to be a resident of the sending State if he is liable in the sending State to the same obligations in relation to tax on his total world income as are residents of that sending State.

3. This Convention shall not apply to International Organizations, to organs or officials thereof and to persons who are members of a diplomatic, consular or permanent mission of a third State, being present in a Contracting State and who are not liable in either Contracting State to the same obligations in relation to tax on their total world income as are residents thereof.

### Article XXVII

#### Miscellaneous Rules

1. The provisions of this Convention shall not be construed to restrict in any manner any exclusion, exemption, deduction, credit, or other allowance now or hereafter accorded

a) by the laws of one of the Contracting States in the determination of the tax imposed by that Contracting State, or

b) by any other agreement entered into by a Contracting State.

2. Nothing in this Convention shall be construed as preventing Canada from imposing a tax on amounts included in the income of a resident of Canada according to section 91 of the Canadian Income Tax Act.

## VII. Final Provisions

### Article XXVIII

#### Entry into Force

1. This Convention shall be ratified and the instruments of ratification shall be exchanged at Tunis.

2. The Convention shall enter into force upon the exchange of instruments of ratification and its provisions shall have effect:

a) in respect of tax withheld at the source on amounts paid or credited to non-residents on or after the first day of January in the calendar year following that in which the exchange of instruments of ratification takes place; and

b) in respect of other taxes, for taxation years beginning on or after the first day of January in the calendar year following that in which the exchange of instruments of ratification takes place.

### Article XXIX

#### Termination

This Convention shall continue in effect in definitely but either Contracting State may, on or before 30 June in any calendar year after the year of the exchange of instruments of ratification, give notice of termination to the other Contracting State and in such event the Convention shall cease to have effect:

a) in respect of tax withheld at the source on amounts paid or credited to non- residents on or after the first day of January in the calendar year following t hat in which the notice is given; and

b) in respect of other taxes, for taxation years beginning on or after the first day of January in the calendar year following that in which the notice is given.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Convention.

DONE in duplicate at Tunis, this tenth day of February 1982 in the English, French and Arabic languages, each version being equally authentic.

Pierre de Bané

FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA

Mansour Moalla

FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF TUNISIA

## Protocol

At the moment of signing the Convention between Canada and the Republic of Tunisia for the Avoidance of Double Taxation with respect to Taxes on Income and on Capital, the undersigned have agreed upon the following provisions which shall be an integral part of the Convention:

1. With reference to paragraph 3 of Article VII, it is understood that no deduction shall be allowed in respect of amounts, if any, paid by the permanent establishment to the head office of the enterprise or any of its other offices, by way of royalties, fees or other similar payments in return for the use of patents or other rights, or by way of commission (otherwise than towards reimbursement of actual expenses) for specific services performed or for management, or by way of interest on moneys lent to the permanent establishment. Likewise, no account shall be taken, in the determination of the profits of a permanent establishment, for amounts charged by the permanent establishment to the head office of the enterprise or any of its other offices, by way of royalties, fees or other similar payments in return for the use of patents or other rights, or by way of commission (otherwise than towards reimbursement of actual expenses) for specific services performed or for management, or by way of interest on moneys lent to the head office of the enterprise or any of its other offices.

2. With respect to paragraph 6 of Article X, it is understood that the additional tax referred to therein represents

a) in the case of Canada, the additional tax on corporations (other than Canadian corporations) carrying on business in Canada; and

b) in the case of Tunisia, the tax on income from securities levied in accordance with the proportion method in respect of distributed profits attributable to a permanent establishment in Tunisia.

3. With respect to paragraph 1 of Article XXVII, it is understood that, in accordance with its taxation laws, Canada shall allow for the purposes of computing the income of a company which is resident of Canada the deduction of losses incurred by a permanent establishment of that company situated in Tunisia, so long as such losses will be deductible in Tunisia for the purposes of determining the profits attributable to that permanent establishment during one of the three years immediately following that in which the loss concerned has been incurred.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Convention.

DONE in duplicate at Tunis, this tenth day of February 1982 in the English, French and Arabic languages, each version being equally authentic.

Pierre de Bané

FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA

Mansour Moalla

FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF TUNISIA