Convention between Canada and Switzerland For the Avoidance of Double Taxation with Respect to Taxes on Income and on Capital


This consolidated version of the Canada-Switzerland Tax Convention, as signed on May 5,1997 and amended by the Protocol signed on October 22, 2010, is provided for convenience of reference only and has no official sanction.


The Government of Canada and the Swiss Federal Council desiring to conclude a Convention for the avoidance of double taxation with respect to taxes on income and on capital, have agreed as follows:

Article 1

Personal Scope

This Convention shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

Article 2

Taxes Covered

1. This Convention shall apply to taxes on income and on capital imposed on behalf of each Contracting State, irrespective of the manner in which they are levied.

2. There shall be regarded as taxes on income and on capital all taxes imposed on total income, on total capital, or on elements of income or of capital, including taxes on gains from the alienation of movable or immovable property, as well as taxes on capital appreciation.

3. The existing taxes to which the Convention shall apply are, in particular:

(a) in the case of Canada: the taxes imposed by the Government of Canada under the Income Tax Act, (hereinafter referred to as "Canadian tax"); 

(b) in the case of Switzerland: the federal, cantonal and communal taxes

(i) on income (total income, earned income, income from capital, industrial and commercial profits, capital gains, and other items of income); and 

(ii) on capital (total property, movable and immovable property, business assets, paid-up capital and reserves, and other items of capital); (hereinafter referred to as "Swiss tax").

4. The Convention shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes which are imposed after the date of signature of the Convention in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any significant changes which have been made in their respective taxation laws.

Article 3

General Definitions

1. In this Convention, unless the context otherwise requires:

(a)

(i) the term "Canada" used in a geographical sense, means the territory of Canada, including:

(A) any area beyond the territorial seas of Canada which, in accordance with international law and the laws of Canada, is an area within which Canada may exercise rights with respect to the seabed and subsoil and their natural resources;

(B) the seas and airspace above every area referred to in clause (A) in respect of any activity carried on in connection with the exploration for or the exploitation of the natural resources referred to therein;

(ii) the term "Switzerland" means the Swiss Confederation;

(b) the terms "a Contracting State" and "the other Contracting State" mean, as the context requires, Canada or Switzerland;

(c) the term "person" includes an individual, an estate, a trust, a company, a partnership and any other body of persons;

(d) the term "company" means any body corporate or any entity which is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes;

(e) the terms "enterprise of a Contracting State" and "enterprise of the other Contracting State" mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;

(f) the term "competent authority" means:

(i) in the case of Canada, the Minister of National Revenue or his authorized representative; 

(ii) in the case of Switzerland, the Director of the Federal Tax Administration or his authorized representative;

(g) the term "tax" means Canadian tax or Swiss tax, as the context requires;

(h) the term "national" means:

(i) any individual possessing the nationality of a Contracting State; 

(ii) any legal person, partnership and association deriving its status as such from the laws in force in a Contracting State.

2. As regards the application of the Convention by a Contracting State, at any time, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning which it has at that time under the law of that State concerning the taxes to which the Convention applies, any meaning under the applicable tax laws of that State prevailing over a meaning given to the term under other laws of that State.

Article 4

Resident

1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term "resident of a Contracting State" means any person who, under the laws of that State, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature, and in the case of Switzerland it includes a partnership created or organized under Swiss law. This term, however, does not include any person who is liable to tax in that State in respect only of income from sources in that State or capital situated therein.

2. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows:

(a) he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State in which he has a permanent home available to him; if he has a permanent home available to him in both States, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests); 

(b) if the State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he has not a permanent home available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State in which he has an habitual abode; 

(c) if he has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State of which he is a national; 

(d) if he is a national of both States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.

3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a company is a resident of both Contracting States, then its status shall be determined as follows:

(a) it shall be deemed to be a resident of the State of which it is a national; 

(b) if it is a national of neither of the States, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.

4. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual or a company is a resident of both Contracting States, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall by mutual agreement endeavour to settle the question and to determine the mode of application of the Convention to such person.

5. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 an individual would be a resident of a Contracting State but is not subject in that State, with respect to all income generally taxable from sources from the other Contracting State, to the generally imposed income taxes, then such individual is not a resident of the first-mentioned State for the purposes of this Convention.

Article 5

Permanent Establishment

1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term "permanent establishment" means a fixed place of business through which the business of the enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.

2. The term "permanent establishment" includes especially:

(a) a place of management; 

(b) a branch; 

(c) an office; 

(d) a factory; 

(e) a workshop; and 

(f) a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources.

3. A building site or construction or installation project constitutes a permanent establishment only if it lasts for more than twelve months.

4. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term "permanent establishment" shall be deemed not to include:

(a) the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise; 

(b) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery; 

(c) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise; 

(d) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise, or of collecting information, for the enterprise; 

(e) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character; 

(f) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in subparagraphs (a) to (e) provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character.

5. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person -- other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 6 applies -- is acting on behalf of an enterprise and has, and habitually exercises, in a Contracting State an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in that State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 4 which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph.

6. An enterprise shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in a Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business.

7. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.

Article 6

Income from Immovable Property

1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. For the purposes of this Convention, the term "immovable property" shall have the meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources; ships and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.

3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property and to income from the alienation of such property.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services.

Article 7

Business Profits

1. The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on or has carried on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.

3. In the determination of the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed those deductible expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment including executive and general administrative expenses, whether incurred in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere.

4. Insofar as it has been customary in a Contracting State to determine the profits to be attributed to a permanent establishment on the basis of an apportionment of the total profits of the enterprise to its various parts, nothing in paragraph 2 shall preclude that Contracting State from determining the profits to be taxed by such an apportionment as may be customary; the method of apportionment adopted shall, however, be such that the result shall be in accordance with the principles contained in this Article.

5. No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.

6. For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.

7. Where profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Convention, then, the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.

Article 8

Shipping and Air Transport

1. Profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable only in that State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 and of Article 7, profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from a voyage of a ship where the principal purpose of the voyage is to transport passengers or property between places in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall also apply to profits referred to in those paragraphs derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from its participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.

4. In this Article,

(a) the term "profits" includes interest on sums generated directly from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic provided that such interest is incidental to the operation; 

(b) the term "operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic" by a person, includes:

(i) the charter or rental of ships or aircraft, and 

(ii) the rental of containers and related equipment,

by that person provided that such charter or rental is incidental to the operation by that person of ships or aircraft in international traffic.

Article 9

Associated Enterprises

1. Where:

(a) an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or 

(b) the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,

and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any income which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, has not so accrued, may be included in the income of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

2. Where a Contracting State includes in the income of an enterprise of that State -- and taxes accordingly- income on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the income so included is income which would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned State, if the conditions made between the enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then the competent authorities of the Contracting States may consult together with a view to reach an agreement on the adjustments of income in both Contracting States.

3. A Contracting State shall not change the income of an enterprise in the circumstances referred to in paragraph 1 after the expiry of the time limits provided in its domestic law and, in any case, after six years from the end of the year in which the income which would be subject to such change would have accrued to that enterprise. This paragraph shall not apply in the case of fraud or wilful default.

Article 10

Dividends

1. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the dividends the tax so charged shall not exceed:

(a) 5 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends if the beneficial owner is a company that owns at least 10 per cent of the voting stock and of the capital of the company paying the dividends; 

(b) 15 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends in all other cases.

The provisions of this paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company on the profits out of which the dividends are paid.

3. Notwithstanding paragraph 2, dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in that State if the dividends are paid to:

(a) the Bank of Canada or the Swiss National Bank; or

(b) a resident of the other Contracting State:

(i) that was constituted and is operated exclusively to administer or provide benefits under one or more pension or retirement plans; or

(ii) that is operated exclusively to earn income for the benefit of one or more residents of that other Contracting State each of which satisfy clause (i),

provided that:

(iii) each pension or retirement plan provides benefits primarily to individuals who are residents of that other Contracting State;

(iv)  the dividends are not derived from carrying on a trade or a business or from a related person; and

(v) the competent authorities of the Contracting States agree that each pension or retirement plan generally corresponds to a pension or retirement plan recognized for tax purposes in the first-mentioned State.

4. The term "dividends" as used in this Article means income from shares, "jouissance" shares or "jouissance" rights, mining shares, founders' shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.

5. The provisions of paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

6. Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company's undistributed profits to a tax on undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State.

7. Notwithstanding any provision in this Convention, Canada may impose on the earnings of a company attributable to permanent establishments in Canada, tax in addition to the tax which would be chargeable on the earnings of a company incorporated in Canada, provided that the rate of such additional tax so imposed shall not exceed 5 per cent. For the purpose of this provision, the term "earnings" means the profits attributable to such permanent establishments in Canada (including gains from the alienation of property forming part of the business property, referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 13, of such permanent establishments) in accordance with Article 7 in a year and previous years after deducting therefrom:

(a) business losses attributable to such permanent establishments (including losses from the alienation of property forming part of the business property of such permanent establishments) in such year and previous years; 

(b) all taxes chargeable in Canada on such profits, other than the additional tax referred to herein; 

(c) the profits reinvested in Canada, provided that the amount of such deduction shall be determined in accordance with the existing provisions of the law of Canada regarding the computation of the allowance in respect of investment in property in Canada, and any subsequent modification of those provisions which shall not affect the general principle hereof; and 

(d) five hundred thousand Canadian dollars ($500,000) less any amount deducted:

(i) by the company, or 

(ii) by a person related thereto from the same or a similar business as that carried on by the company,

under this sub-paragraph (d); for the purposes of this sub-paragraph (d), a company is related to another company if one company directly or indirectly controls the other, or both companies are directly controlled by the same person or persons, or if the two companies deal with each other not at arm's length.

The provisions of this paragraph shall also apply with respect to earnings from the alienation of immovable property in Canada by a company carrying on a trade in immovable property without a permanent establishment in Canada but only insofar as these earnings may be taxed in Canada in accordance with the provisions of Article 6 or paragraph 1 of Article 13.

8. The provisions of paragraphs 1, 2(b) and 5 shall also apply to income derived by a resident of Switzerland from an estate or a trust which is a resident of Canada. For the purposes of paragraph 2(b) of Article 22, the term "dividend" shall include such income.

Article 11

Interest

1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the interest the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the interest.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2,

(a) interest arising in Switzerland and paid to a resident of Canada shall be taxable only in Canada if it is paid in respect of a loan made, guaranteed or insured, or a credit extended, guaranteed or insured by Export Development Canada;

(b) interest arising in Canada and paid to a resident of Switzerland shall be taxable only in Switzerland if it is paid in respect of a loan made, guaranteed or insured, or a credit extended, guaranteed or insured by the Swiss Export Risk Insurance; and

(c) interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State shall not be taxable in the first-mentioned State if the beneficial owner of the interest is a resident of the other Contracting State and is not related to the payer.

4. For the purposes of this Article, a person shall be deemed to be related to another person if either person participates directly or indirectly in the management or control of the other, or if any third person or persons participate directly or indirectly in the management or control of both.

5. The term "interest" as used in this Article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage, and in particular, income from government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures, as well as income which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from money lent by the laws of the State in which the income arises. However, the term "interest" does not include income dealt with in Article 8 or in Article 10.

6. The provisions of paragraphs 1, 2, and 3 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

7. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a political subdivision, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

8. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

Article 12

Royalties

1. Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such royalties may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the royalties, the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2,

(a) copyright royalties and other like payments in respect of the production or reproduction of any literary, dramatic, musical or other artistic work (but not including royalties in respect of motion picture films nor royalties in respect of works on film or videotape or other means of reproduction for use in connection with television broadcasting); 

(b) royalties for the use of, or the right to use, computer software; and 

(c) royalties for the use of, or the right to use, any patent or any information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience (but not including any such information provided in connection with a rental or franchise agreement),

arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State who is the beneficial owner thereof shall be taxable only in that other State.

4. The term "royalties" as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright, patent, trademark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process or other intangible property, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial or scientific equipment, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience, and includes payments of any kind in respect of motion picture films and works on film, videotape or other means of reproduction for use in connection with television.

5. The provisions of paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

6. Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a political subdivision, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the obligation to pay the royalties was incurred, and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

7. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

Article 13

Capital Gains

1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise) or of such a fixed base may be taxed in that other State.

3. Gains derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the alienation of:

(a) ships or aircraft operated principally by the enterprise in international traffic; or 

(b) movable property (including containers and related equipment) used by the enterprise principally in connection with its operation of such ships or aircraft in international traffic,

shall be taxable only in that State.

4. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of:

(a) shares (other than shares listed on an approved stock exchange in the other Contracting State) forming part of a substantial interest in the capital stock of a company which is a resident of that other State the value of which shares is derived principally from immovable property situated in that other State; or 

(b) a substantial interest in a partnership or trust, established under the law in the other Contracting State, the value of which is derived principally from immovable property situated in that other State,

may be taxed in that other State. For the purposes of this paragraph, the term "immovable property" includes the shares of a company referred to in subparagraph (a) or an interest in a partnership or trust referred to in subparagraph (b) but does not include any property, other than rental property, in which the business of the company, partnership or trust is carried on.

5. Where a resident of a Contracting State alienates property in the course of an organization, reorganization, amalgamation, division or similar transaction and profit, gain or income with respect to such alienation is not recognized for the purpose of taxation in that State, if requested to do so by the person who acquires the property, the competent authority of the other Contracting State may agree, subject to terms and conditions satisfactory to such competent authority, to defer the recognition of the profit, gain or income with respect to such property for the purpose of taxation in that other State until such time and in such manner as may be stipulated in the agreement.

6. Gains from the alienation of any property, other than that referred to in paragraphs 1, 2, 3 and 4 shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.

7. The provisions of paragraph 6 shall not affect the right of Canada to levy, according to its law, a tax on gains derived by an individual who is a resident of Switzerland from the alienation of any property, other than property to which the provisions of paragraph 8 apply, if the alienator:

(a) possesses Canadian nationality or was a resident of Canada for fifteen years or more prior to the alienation of the property, and 

(b) was a resident of Canada at any time during the five years immediately preceding such alienation.

8. Where an individual who ceases to be a resident of a Contracting State, and immediately thereafter becomes a resident of the other Contracting State, is treated for the purposes of taxation in the first-mentioned State as having alienated a property (in this paragraph referred to as the “deemed alienation”) and is taxed in that State by reason thereof, the individual may elect to be treated for purposes of taxation in the other State as if the individual had, immediately before becoming a resident of that State, sold and repurchased the property for an amount equal to the lesser of its fair market value at the time of the deemed alienation and the amount the individual elects, at the time of the actual alienation of the property, to be the proceeds of disposition in the first-mentioned State in respect of the deemed alienation. However, this provision shall not apply to property any gain from which, arising immediately before the individual became a resident of that other State, may be taxed in that other State nor to immovable property situated in a third State.

Article 14

Independent Personal Services

1. Income derived by an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other activities of an independent character shall be taxable only in that State unless he has a fixed base regularly available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities. If he has or had such a fixed base, the income may be taxed in the other State but only so much of it as is attributable to that fixed base.

2. The term "professional services" includes especially independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants.

Article 15

Dependent Personal Services

1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18 and 19, salaries, wages and other remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if:

(a) the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in the fiscal year concerned, and 

(b) the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of the other State, and 

(c) the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in the other State.

3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic by an enterprise of a Contracting State, may be taxed in that State.

Article 16

Directors' Fees

Directors' fees and similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

Article 17

Artistes and Sportsmen

1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer, such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as a sportsman, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.

2. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsman in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or sportsman himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sportsman are exercised.

3. The provisions of paragraph 2 shall not apply if it is established that neither the entertainer or the sportsman nor persons related thereto, participate directly or indirectly in the profits of the person referred to in that paragraph.

Article 18

Pensions and Annuities

1. Pensions and annuities arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State, including payments under the social security legislation in a Contracting State, may be taxed in the State in which they arise, and according to the law of that State. However, in the case of periodic pension or annuity payments (except lump-sum payments arising under the surrender, cancellation, redemption, sale or other alienation of an annuity, and payments of any kind under an annuity contract the cost of which was deductible, in whole or in part, in computing the income of any person who acquired the contract), the tax so charged shall not exceed 15 per cent of the gross amount of the payment.

2. Notwithstanding anything in this Convention:

(a) pensions paid by, or out of funds created by, Switzerland or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to any individual in respect of services rendered to Switzerland or subdivision or local authority thereof in the discharge of functions of a governmental nature shall be taxable only in Switzerland; 

(b) war pensions and allowances (including pensions and allowances paid to war veterans or paid as a consequence of war) arising in Canada and paid to a resident of Switzerland shall be excluded from the bases used for the computation of Swiss tax, to the extent they would be exempt from Canadian tax if received by a resident of Canada; 

(c) pensions and allowances received from Switzerland under the legislation concerning Military Insurance shall be exempt from Canadian tax so long as they are exempt from Swiss tax; 

(d) alimony and other similar payments arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State who is subject to tax therein in respect thereof, shall be taxable only in that other State.

Article 19

Government Service

1.

(a) Salaries, wages and similar remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or authority shall be taxable only in that State.

(b) However, such salaries, wages and similar remuneration shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the recipient is a resident if the services are rendered in that State and if the recipient is a national of that State or did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.

2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to remuneration in respect of services rendered in connection with any business carried on by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof.

Article 20

Students

Payments which a student, apprentice or business trainee who is, or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State, a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned State solely for the purpose of his education or training receives for the purpose of his maintenance, education or training shall not be taxed in that State, provided that such payments arise from sources outside that State.

Article 21

Capital

1. Capital represented by immovable property owned by a resident of a Contracting State and situated in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.

2. Capital represented by movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or by movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, may be taxed in that other State.

3. Capital represented by ships and aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State in international traffic and by movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships and aircraft, shall be taxable only in that State.

4. All other elements of capital of a resident of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State.

Article 22

Elimination of Double Taxation

1. In the case of Canada, double taxation shall be avoided as follows:

(a) Subject to the existing provisions of the law of Canada regarding the deduction from tax payable in Canada of tax paid in a territory outside Canada and to any subsequent modification of those provisions -- which shall not affect the general principle hereof -- and unless a greater deduction or relief is provided under the laws of Canada, tax payable in Switzerland on profits, income or gains arising in Switzerland shall be deducted from any Canadian tax payable in respect of such profits, income or gains. 

(b) Where a resident of Switzerland derives a gain, referred to in paragraph 7 of Article 13, which may be taxed in Canada, Canada shall, subject to the existing provisions of the law of Canada regarding the deduction from tax payable in Canada of tax paid in a territory outside Canada and to any subsequent modification of those provisions -- which shall not affect the general principle hereof -- allow as a deduction from any Canadian tax payable by that person in respect of such gain, an amount equal to the tax paid in Switzerland on that gain. 

(c) Where in accordance with any provision of the Convention income derived or capital owned by a resident of Canada is exempt from tax in Canada, Canada may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on other income or capital, take into account the exempted income or capital.

2. In the case of Switzerland, double taxation shall be avoided as follows:

(a) Where a resident of Switzerland derives income or owns capital which, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, may be taxed in Canada, Switzerland shall, subject to the provisions of subparagraphs (b), (c) and (d), exempt such income or capital from tax but may, in calculating tax on the remaining income or capital of that resident, apply the rate of tax which would have been applicable if the exempted income or capital had not been so exempted; provided, however, that such exemption shall apply to gains referred to in paragraph 4 of Article 13 only if actual taxation of such gains in Canada is demonstrated. 

(b) Where a resident of Switzerland derives dividends, interest or royalties which, in accordance with the provisions of Articles 10, 11 and 12, may be taxed in Canada, Switzerland shall allow, upon request, a relief to such resident. The relief may consist of:

(i) a deduction from the Swiss tax on the income of that resident of an amount equal to the tax levied in Canada in accordance with the provisions of Articles 10, 11 and 12; such deduction shall not, however, exceed that part of the Swiss tax, as computed before the deduction is given, which is appropriate to the income which may be taxed in Canada; or 

(ii) a lump sum reduction of the Swiss tax; or

(iii) a partial exemption of such dividends, interest or royalties from Swiss tax, in any case consisting at least of the deduction of the tax levied in Canada from the gross amount of the dividends, interest or royalties.

Switzerland shall determine the applicable relief and regulate the procedure in accordance with the Swiss provisions relating to the carrying out of international conventions of the Swiss Confederation for the avoidance of double taxation.

(c) The provisions of subparagraph (a) shall not restrict the right of Switzerland to tax the gains referred to in paragraph 7 of Article 13.

(d) Where a resident of Switzerland derives pensions or annuities which, in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 18, may be taxed in Canada, Switzerland shall allow, upon request, a relief consisting of the deduction of one-third of the net amount of such pensions or annuities.

3. For the purposes of subparagraph (a) of paragraph 1, profits, income or gains of a resident of Canada which are taxed in Switzerland in accordance with the Convention shall be deemed to arise in Switzerland.

Article 23

Non-Discrimination

1. Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances are or may be subjected.

2. The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities.

3. Nothing in this Article shall be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents.

4. Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises of the first-mentioned State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of a third State, are or may be subjected.

5. In this Article, the term "taxation" means taxes which are the subject of this Convention.

Article 24

Mutual Agreement Procedure

1. Where a person considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, he may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic law of those States, address to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident an application in writing stating the grounds for claiming the revision of such taxation. To be admissible, the said application must be submitted within three years from the first notification of the action which gives rise to taxation not in accordance with the Convention.

2. The competent authority referred to in paragraph 1 shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation which is not in accordance with the Convention. Any agreement reached shall be implemented notwithstanding any time limits in the domestic law of the Contracting States.

3. A Contracting State shall not, after the expiry of the time limits provided in its domestic law and, in any case, after six years from the end of the taxable period in which the income concerned has accrued, increase the tax base of a resident of either of the Contracting States by including therein items of income which have also been charged to tax in the other Contracting State. This paragraph shall not apply in the case of fraud or wilful default.

4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Convention. In particular, the competent authorities of the Contracting States may consult together to endeavour to agree:

(a) to the same attribution of profits to a resident of a Contracting State and its permanent establishment situated in the other Contracting State;

(b) to the same allocation of income between a resident of a Contracting State and any associated person provided for in Article 9.

5. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Convention.

6. Where,

(a) under paragraph 1, a person has submitted a case to the competent authority of a Contracting State on the basis that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States have resulted for that person in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, and

(b) the competent authorities are unable to reach an agreement to resolve that case pursuant to paragraph 2 within three years from the date upon which the information necessary to undertake substantive consideration for a mutual agreement has been received by both competent authorities or on another date as agreed by both competent authorities,

any unresolved issues arising from the case shall be submitted to arbitration. The arbitration shall be conducted in a manner prescribed by the rules and procedures agreed upon by the Contracting States in an exchange of notes through diplomatic channels. These unresolved issues shall not, however, be submitted to arbitration if a decision on these issues has already been rendered by a court or administrative tribunal of either State. Unless a person whose taxation is directly affected by the arbitration decision does not accept that decision, it shall be binding on both Contracting States and shall constitute a resolution by mutual agreement under this Article.

7. The issues to which the provisions of paragraph 6 apply are issues of fact covered by Articles 5, 7 and 9, and any provisions subsequently agreed by the competent authorities.

Article 25

Exchange of Information

1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is foreseeably relevant for carrying out the provisions of this Convention or to the administration or enforcement of the domestic laws concerning taxes covered by the Convention, insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Convention. The exchange of information is not restricted by Article 1.

2. Any information received under paragraph 1 by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) involved in the administration, assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to income or capital taxes. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions. Notwithstanding the foregoing, information received by a Contracting State may be used for other purposes when such information may be used for such other purposes under the laws of both States and the competent authority of the requested State authorizes such use.

3. In no case shall the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:

(a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;

(b) to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;

(c) to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public).

4. If information is requested by a Contracting State in accordance with this Article, the other Contracting State shall use its information gathering measures to obtain the requested information, even though that other State may not need such information for its own tax purposes. The obligation contained in the preceding sentence is subject to the limitations of paragraph 3 but in no case shall such limitations be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information solely because it has no domestic interest in such information.

5. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 3 be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information solely because the information is held by a bank, other financial institution, nominee or person acting in an agency or a fiduciary capacity or because it relates to ownership interests in a person. In order to obtain such information, the tax authorities of the requested Contracting State, if necessary to comply with its obligations under this paragraph, shall have the power to enforce the disclosure of information covered by this paragraph, notwithstanding paragraph 3 or any contrary provisions in its domestic laws.

Article 26

Diplomatic Agents and Consular Officers

1. Nothing in this Convention shall affect the fiscal privileges of diplomatic agents or consular officers under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

2. Notwithstanding Article 4, an individual who is a member of a diplomatic mission, consular post or permanent mission of a Contracting State which is situated in the other Contracting State or in a third State shall be deemed for the purposes of the Convention to be a resident of the sending State if he is liable in the sending State to the same obligations in relation to tax on his total income and capital as are residents of that sending State.

3. The Convention shall not apply to international organizations, to organs or officials thereof and to persons who are members of a diplomatic mission, consular post or permanent mission of a third State or group of States, being present in a Contracting State and who are not liable in either Contracting State to the same obligations in relation to tax on their total income and capital as are residents thereof.

Article 27

Miscellaneous Rules

1. The provisions of this Convention shall not be construed to restrict in any manner any exemption, allowance, credit, or other deduction now or hereafter accorded:

(a) by the laws of a Contracting State in the determination of the tax imposed by that State; or 

(b) by any other agreement entered into by a Contracting State.

2. Nothing in the Convention shall be construed as preventing Canada from imposing a tax on amounts included in the income of a resident of Canada with respect to a partnership, trust, or controlled foreign affiliate, in which he has an interest.

3. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of applying the Convention.

4. Contributions in a year in respect of services rendered in that year paid by, or on behalf of, an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State or who is temporarily present in that State, to a pension plan that is recognized for tax purposes in the other Contracting State shall, during a period not exceeding in the aggregate 60 months, be treated in the same way for tax purposes in the first-mentioned State as a contribution paid to a pension plan that is recognized for tax purposes in that first-mentioned State, provided that:

(a) such individual was contributing on a regular basis to the pension plan for a period ending immediately before he became a resident of or temporarily present in the first-mentioned State; and 

(b) the competent authority of the first-mentioned State agrees that the pension plan corresponds to a pension plan recognized for tax purposes by that State.

5. For purposes of paragraph 3 of Article XXII (Consultation) of the General Agreement on Trade in Services, the Contracting States agree that, notwithstanding that paragraph, any dispute between them as to whether a measure falls within the scope of this Convention may be brought before the Council for Trade in Services, as provided by that paragraph, only with the consent of both Contracting States. Any doubt as to the interpretation of this paragraph shall be resolved under paragraph 4 of Article 24 or, failing agreement under that procedure, pursuant to any other procedure agreed to by both Contracting States.

Article 28

Entry into Force

1. This Convention shall be ratified and the instruments of ratification shall be exchanged as soon as possible.

2. The Convention shall enter into force upon the exchange of instruments of ratification and its provisions shall have effect: 

(a) in respect of tax withheld at the source on amounts paid or credited to non-residents on or after the first day of January of the year of in which the Convention entered into force; and

(b) in respect of other taxes for taxation years beginning or after the first day of January of the year in which the Convention entered into force.

3. The provisions of the Convention between Canada and Switzerland for the avoidance of double taxation with respect to taxes on income and on capital signed at Berne on August 20, 1976, shall cease to have effect with respect to taxes to which this Convention applies in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 2.

Article 29

Termination

This Convention shall continue in effect indefinitely but either Contracting State may, on or before June 30 in any calendar year after the year of the exchange of instruments of ratification, give to the other Contracting State a notice of termination in writing through diplomatic channel; in such event, the Convention shall cease to have effect:

(a) in respect of tax withheld at the source on amounts paid or credited to non-residents on or after the first day of January in the calendar year next following that in which the notice is given; and 

(b) in respect of other taxes for taxation years beginning on or after the first day of January in the calendar year next following that in which the notice is given.

INTERPRETATIVE PROTOCOL

The Government of Canada and the Swiss Federal Council

Have agreed at the signing of the Protocol amending the Convention between the Government of Canada and the Swiss Federal Council for the Avoidance of Double Taxation with respect to Taxes on Income and on Capital, done at Berne on 5 May 1997 (the “Convention”), on the following provisions, which shall form an integral part of the Convention:

1. Regarding Article 11:

Subparagraph 3(c) shall not apply where all or any portion of the interest paid or payable on an obligation that is contingent or dependent on the use of or production from property is computed by reference to revenue, profit, cash flow, commodity price or any other similar criterion or by reference to dividends paid or payable to shareholders of any class of shares of the capital stock of a corporation.

2. Regarding Article 25:

(a) It is understood that an exchange of information will only be requested once the requesting Contracting State has pursued all reasonable means available under its internal taxation procedure to obtain the information.

(b) It is understood that the competent authority of the requesting State shall provide the following information to the competent authority of the requested State when making a request for information under Article 25 of the Convention:

(i) name and, to the extent known, other information, such as address, account number or date of birth, in order to identify the person(s) under examination or investigation;

(ii) the period of time for which the information is requested;

(iii) a statement of the information sought including its nature and the form in which the requesting State wishes to receive the information from the requested State;

(iv) the tax purpose for which the information is sought;

(v) the name and, to the extent known, the address of any person believed to be in possession of the requested information.

(c) It is understood that the standard of “foreseeable relevance” is intended to provide for exchange of information in tax matters to the widest possible extent and, at the same time, to clarify that Contracting States are not at liberty to engage in “fishing expeditions” or to request information that is unlikely to be relevant to the tax affairs of a given taxpayer. While subparagraph 2(b) contains important procedural requirements that are intended to ensure that fishing expeditions do not occur, clauses (i) through (v) of subparagraph 2(b) nevertheless are to be interpreted in order not to frustrate effective exchange of information.

(d) Although Article 25 of the Convention does not restrict the possible methods for exchanging information, it shall not commit the Contracting States to exchange information on an automatic or a spontaneous basis.

(e) It is understood that in the case of an exchange of information, the administrative procedural rules regarding taxpayers’ rights provided for in the requested Contracting State remain applicable before the information is exchanged with the requesting Contracting State. It is further understood that this provision intends to provide the taxpayer a fair procedure and not to prevent or unduly delay the exchange of information process.