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Status of Negotiations

Convention Between Canada and Australia

For the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Income


This consolidated version of the Canada-Australia Income Tax Convention signed on May 21, 1980 and amended by a Protocol signed January 23, 2002 is provided for convenience of reference only.


The Government of Canada and the Government of Australia desiring to conclude a Convention for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income, have agreed as follows:

Chapter I - Scope of the Convention

Article 1

Personal Scope

This Convention shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

Article 2[1]

Taxes Covered

1. The existing taxes to which this Convention shall apply are:

(a) in the case of Australia: the income tax, and the resource rent tax in respect of offshore projects relating to exploration for or exploitation of petroleum resources, imposed under the federal law of Australia;

(b) in the case of Canada: the income taxes imposed by the Government of Canada under the Income Tax Act.

2. This Convention shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes which are imposed under the federal law of Australia or the law of Canada after the date of signature of this Convention in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any substantial changes which have been made in the law of their respective States relating to the taxes to which this Convention applies within a reasonable period of time after those changes.

Chapter II - Definitions

Article 3[2]

General Definitions

1. In this Convention, unless the context otherwise requires:

a) the term "Australia", when used in a geographical sense, excludes all external territories other than:

(i) the Territory of Norfolk Island;

(ii) the Territory of Christmas Island;

(iii) the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands;

(iv) the Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands;

(v) the Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands; and

(vi) the Coral Sea Islands Territory,

and includes any area adjacent to the territorial limits of Australia (including the Territories specified in this subparagraph) in respect of which there is for the time being in force, consistently with international law, a law of Australia dealing with the exploration for or the exploitation of any of the natural resources of the seabed and subsoil of the continental shelf;

b) the term "Canada" used in a geographical sense, means the territory of Canada, including any area beyond the territorial waters of Canada which is an area where Canada may, in accordance with its national legislation and international law, exercise rights with respect to the seabed and subsoil and their natural resources;

c) the terms "Contracting State", "one of the Contracting States" and "other Contracting State" mean Canada or Australia as the context requires;

d) the term "person" includes an individual, an estate, a trust, a company and any other body of persons;

e) the term "company" means any body corporate or any entity which is assimilated to a body corporate for tax purposes; in French, the term "société" also means a "corporation" within the meaning of Canadian law;

f) the terms "enterprise of one of the Contracting States" and "enterprise of the other Contracting State" mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of one of the Contracting States and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;

g) the term "tax" means Australian tax or Canadian tax, as the context requires;

h) the term "Australia tax" means tax imposed by Australia, being tax to which this Convention applies by virtue of Article 2;

i) the term "Canadian tax" means tax imposed by Canada, being tax to which this Convention applies by virtue of Article 2;

j) the term "competent authority" means in the case of Canada, the Minister of National Revenue or his authorized representative, and in the case of Australia, the Commissioner of Taxation or his authorized representative;

k) the term "international traffic" means any voyage of a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State to transport passengers or property except where the principal purpose of the voyage is to transport passengers or property between places within the other Contracting State.

2. In this Convention, the terms "Australian tax" and "Canadian tax" do not include any penalty or interest imposed under the law of either Contracting State relating to the taxes to which this Convention applies by virtue of Article 2.

3. As regards the application of this Convention at any time by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning that it has at that time under the law of that State concerning the taxes to which the Convention applies, any meaning under the applicable tax law of that State prevailing over a meaning given to the term under other law of that State.

Article 4[3]

Residence

1. Subject to paragraph 2, for the purposes of this Convention, a person is a resident of a Contracting State if that person is a resident of that State for the purposes of its tax. A Contracting State or any political subdivision or local authority thereof or any agency or instrumentality of any such State, subdivision or authority is also a resident of that State for the purposes of this Convention.

2. A person is not a resident of a Contracting State for the purposes of this Convention if the person is liable to tax in that State in respect only of income from sources in that State.

3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined in accordance with the following rules:

a) he shall be deemed to be a resident solely of the Contracting State in which he has a permanent home available to him;

b) if he has a permanent home available to him in both Contracting States, or if he does not have a permanent home available to him in either of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident solely of the Contracting State with which his personal and economic relations are the closer.

4. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then the person's status shall be determined as follows:

a) it shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State in which it is incorporated or otherwise constituted;

b) if it is not incorporated or otherwise constituted in either of the Contracting States, it shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State in which its place of effective management is situated.

Article 5[4]

Permanent Establishment

1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term "permanent establishment" means a fixed place of business through which the business of the enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.

2. The term "permanent establishment" includes especially:

a) a place of management;

b) a branch;

c) an office;

d) a factory;

e) a workshop;

f) a mine, quarry or other place of extraction of natural resources;

g) an agricultural, pastoral or forestry property;

h) a building site or construction, installation or assembly project which exists for more than 12 months.

3. An enterprise shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment merely by reason of:

a) the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;

b) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery;

c) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;

d) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise or for collecting information, for the enterprise;

e) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of activities which have a preparatory or auxiliary character for the enterprise, such as advertising or scientific research.

4. An enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in one of the Contracting States and to carry on business through that permanent establishment if:

a) it carries on supervisory activities in that State for more than twelve months in connection with a building site, or a construction, installation or assembly project which is being undertaken in that State; or

b) substantial equipment is being used in that State by, for or under contract with the enterprise other than in connection with a building site or construction, installation or assembly project of the enterprise.

5. A person acting in one of the Contracting States on behalf of an enterprise of the other Contracting State — other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 6 applies — shall be deemed to be a permanent establishment of that enterprise in the first-mentioned State if:

a) he has, and habitually exercises in that State, an authority to conclude contracts on behalf of the enterprise, unless his activities are limited to the purchase of goods or merchandise for the enterprise; or

b) in so acting, he manufactures or processes in that State for the enterprise goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise.

6. An enterprise of one of the Contracting States shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that other State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, where that person is acting in the ordinary course of his business as such a broker or agent.

7. The fact that a company which is a resident of one of the Contracting States controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise) shall not of itself make either company a permanent establishment of the other.

8. The principles set forth in paragraphs 1 to 7 inclusive shall be applied in determining for the purposes of this Convention whether there is a permanent establishment outside both Contracting States and whether an enterprise, not being an enterprise of one of the Contracting States, has a permanent establishment in one of the Contracting States.

Chapter III - Taxation of Income

Article 6[5]

Income from Real Property

1. Income from real property may be taxed in the Contracting State in which the real property is situated.

2. For the purposes of this Convention, the term "real property" in relation to a Contracting State, shall have the meaning which it has under the law of that State and shall include:

a) a lease of land and any other interest in or over land, whether improved or not, including a right to explore for mineral, oil or gas deposits or other natural resources, and a right to mine those deposits or resources; and

b) a right to receive variable or fixed payments either as consideration for or in respect of the exploitation of, or the right to explore for or exploit, mineral, oil or gas deposits, quarries or other places of extraction or exploitation of natural resources.

3. Any interest or right referred to in paragraph 2 shall be regarded as situated where the land, mineral, oil or gas deposits, quarries or natural resources, as the case may be, are situated or where the exploration may take place.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from real property of an enterprise and to income from real property used for the performance of independent personal services.

Article 7[6]

Business Profits

1. The profits of an enterprise of one of the Contracting States shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on or has carried on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State, but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of one of the Contracting States carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment or with other enterprises with which it deals.

3. In the determination of the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses of the enterprise, being expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment (including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred) and which would be deductible if the permanent establishment were an independent entity which paid those expenses, whether incurred in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere.

4. No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.

5. If the information available to the competent authority of a Contracting State is inadequate to determine the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment of an enterprise, nothing in this Article shall affect the application of any law of that State relating to the determination of the tax liability of a person provided that that law shall be applied, so far as the information available to the competent authority permits, in accordance with the principles of this Article.

6. Where profits include items which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Convention, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.

7. Nothing in this Article shall affect the operation of any law of a Contracting State relating specifically to taxation of any person who carries on a business of any form of insurance, provided that if the law in force in either Contracting State at the date of signature of this Convention is varied (otherwise than in minor respects so as not to affect its general character) the Contracting States shall consult with each other with a view to agreeing to any amendment of this paragraph that may be appropriate.

8. Where:

a) a resident of Canada is beneficially entitled, whether directly or through one or more interposed trusts, to a share of the business profits of an enterprise carried on in Australia by the trustee of a trust other than a trust which is treated as a company for tax purposes; and

b) in relation to that enterprise, that trustee would, in accordance with the principles of Article 5, have a permanent establishment in Australia,

the enterprise carried on by the trustee shall be deemed to be a business carried on in Australia by that resident through a permanent establishment situated in Australia and that share of business profits shall be attributable to that permanent establishment.

Article 8[7]

Shipping and Air Transport

1. Profits from the operation of ships or aircraft derived by a resident of one of the Contracting States shall be taxable only in that State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, such profits may be taxed in the other Contracting State where they are profits from operations of ships or aircraft confined solely to places in that other State.

3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall apply in relation to the share of the profits from the operation of ships or aircraft derived by a resident of one of the Contracting States through participation in a pool service, in a joint transport operating organization or in an international operating agency.

4. For the purposes of this Article, profits derived from the carriage by ships or aircraft of passengers, livestock, mail, goods or merchandise taken on board in a Contracting State for discharge at a place in that State shall be treated as profits from operations confined solely to places in that State.

Article 9

Associated Enterprises

1. Where

a) an enterprise of one of the Contracting States participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or

b) the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of one of the Contracting States and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,

and in either case conditions operate between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which might be expected to operate between independent enterprises dealing wholly independently with one another, then any profits which, but for those conditions, might have been expected to accrue to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

2. If the information available to the competent authority of a Contracting State is inadequate to determine the profits to be attributed to an enterprise, nothing in this Article shall affect the application of any law of that State relating to the determination of the tax liability of a person, provided that that law shall be applied, so far as the information available to the competent authority permits, in accordance with the principles of this Article.

3. Where profits on which an enterprise of one of the Contracting States has been charged to tax in that State are also included, by virtue of paragraph 1 or 2, in the profits of an enterprise of the other Contracting State and taxed accordingly, and the profits so included are profits which might have been expected to have accrued to that enterprise of the other State if the conditions operative between the enterprises had been those which might have been expected to have operated between independent enterprises dealing wholly independently with one another, then the first-mentioned State shall, subject to paragraph 4, make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of tax charged on those profits in the first-mentioned State. In determining such an adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Convention in relation to the nature of the income, and for this purpose the competent authorities of the Contracting State shall if necessary consult each other.

4. The provisions of paragraph 3 relating to an appropriate adjustment are not applicable after the expiration of six years from the end of the year of income or taxation year in respect of which a Contracting State has charged to tax the profits to which the adjustment would relate.

Article 10[8]

Dividends

1. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of one of the Contracting States for the purposes of its tax, being dividends to which a resident of the other Contracting State is beneficially entitled, may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, those dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident for the purposes of its tax, and according to the law of that State, but the tax so charged shall not exceed:

a) (i) in the case of dividends paid by a company that is a resident of Australia for the purposes of its tax, 5 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends, to the extent to which the dividends have been fully franked in accordance with the law of Australia, if a company that holds directly at least 10 per cent of the voting power of the company paying the dividends is beneficially entitled to those dividends; and

    (ii) in the case of dividends paid by a company that is a resident of Canada for the purposes of its tax, except in the case of dividends paid by a non-resident-owned investment corporation that is a resident of Canada for the purposes of its tax, 5 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends if a company that controls directly or indirectly at least 10 per cent of the voting power in the company paying the dividends is beneficially entitled to those dividends; and

b) 15 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends in all other cases,

and if the relevant law of either Contracting State is varied in a manner that bears upon this provision, otherwise than in minor respects so as not to affect its general character, the Contracting States shall consult each other with a view to agreeing to any amendment of this paragraph that may be appropriate.

3. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of one of the Contracting States, being dividends to which a person who is not a resident of the other Contracting State is beneficially entitled, shall be exempt from tax in that other State except insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State. Provided that this paragraph shall not apply in relation to dividends paid by any company which is a resident of Australia for the purposes of Australian tax and which is also a resident of Canada for the purposes of Canadian tax.

4. The term "dividends" as used in this Article means income from shares, as well as other amounts which are subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the law of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident for the purposes of its tax.

5. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the person beneficially entitled to the dividends, being a resident of one of the Contracting States, carries on business through a permanent establishment situated in the other Contracting State, or performs professional services from a fixed base situated in that other State, being the State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with that permanent establishment or fixed base. In such a case, the provisions of Article 7 or 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

6. Canada may impose, on the earnings attributable to a permanent establishment in Canada of a company which is a resident of Australia or on the earnings of such company attributable to the alienation of real property situated in Canada where the company is carrying on a trade in real property, a tax (in this paragraph referred to as a "branch tax") in addition to the tax that would be chargeable on the earnings of a company that is a resident of Canada, except that any branch tax so imposed shall not exceed 5 per cent of the amount of such earnings that have not been subjected to such branch tax in previous taxation years. For the purposes of this provision, the term "earnings" means the earnings attributable to the alienation of such real property situated in Canada as may be taxed by Canada under the provisions of Article 6 or paragraph 1 of Article 13, and the profits, including any gains, attributable to a permanent establishment in Canada in a year and previous years after deducting therefrom all other taxes, other than the branch tax referred to herein, imposed on such profits in Canada.

7. Australia may impose an income tax (in this paragraph called a "branch profits tax") on the reduced taxable income of a company that is a resident of Canada in addition to the income tax (in this paragraph called "the general income tax") payable by the company in respect of its taxable income; provided that any branch profits tax so imposed in respect of a year of income shall not exceed 5 per cent of the amount by which the reduced taxable income of that year of income exceeds the general income tax payable in respect of the reduced taxable income of that year of income.

Article 11[9]

Interest

1. Interest arising in one of the Contracting States, being interest to which a resident of the other Contracting State is beneficially entitled, may be taxed in that other State.

2. Such interest may be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises, and according to the law of that State, but the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the interest.

3. The term "interest" in this Article includes interest from Government securities or from bonds or debentures, whether or not secured by mortgage and whether or not carrying a right to participate in profits, and interest from any other form of indebtedness as well as all other income assimilated to interest by the taxation law of the Contracting State in which the income arises.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the person beneficially entitled to the interest, being a resident of one of the Contracting States, carries on business through a permanent establishment situated in the other Contracting State, or performs professional services from a fixed base situated in that other State, being the State in which the interest arises, and the indebtedness giving rise to the interest is effectively connected with that permanent establishment or fixed base. In such a case, the provisions of Article 7 or 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

5. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that Contracting State itself or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof or a person who is a resident of that State for the purposes of its tax. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of one of the Contracting States or not, has in a State other than that of which he is a resident a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and that interest is borne by that permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

6. Where, owing to a special relationship between the payer and the person beneficially entitled to the interest or between both of them and some other person the amount of the interest paid, having regard to the indebtedness for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which might have been expected to have been agreed upon by the payer and the person so entitled in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In that case, the excess part of the amount of the interest paid shall remain taxable according to the law of each Contracting State, but subject to the other provisions of this Convention.

Article 12[10]

Royalties

1. Royalties arising in one of the Contracting States, being royalties, to which a resident of the other Contracting State is beneficially entitled, may be taxed in that other State.

2. Such royalties may be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise, and according to the law of that State, but the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties.

3. The term "royalties" as used in this Article means payments or credits, whether periodical or not, and however described or computed, to the extent to which they are made as consideration for:

a) the use of, or the right to use, any copyright, patent, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, trade mark or other like property or right; or

b) the use of, or the right to use, any industrial, commercial or scientific equipment; or

c) the supply of scientific, technical, industrial or commercial knowledge or information; or

d) the supply of any assistance that is ancillary and subsidiary to, and is furnished as a means of enabling the application or enjoyment of, any such property or right as is mentioned in subparagraph a), any such equipment as is mentioned in subparagraph b) or any such knowledge or information as is mentioned in subparagraph c); or

e) the use of, or the right to use:

(i) motion picture films; or

(ii) films or videotapes or other means of reproduction for use in connection with television; or

(iii) tapes for use in connection with radio broadcasting; or

f) total or partial forbearance in respect of the use or supply of any property or right referred to in this paragraph.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the person beneficially entitled to the royalties, being a resident of one of the Contracting States, carries on business through a permanent establishment situated in the other Contracting State, or performs professional services from a fixed base situated in that other State, being the State in which the royalties arise and the asset giving rise to the royalties is effectively connected with that permanent establishment or fixed base. In such a case, the provisions of Article 7 or 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

5. Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that Contracting State itself or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof or a person who is a resident of that State for the purposes of its tax. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of one of the Contracting States or not, has in a State other than that of which he is a resident a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the obligation to pay the royalties was incurred, and those royalties are borne by that permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

6. Where, owing to a special relationship between the payer and the person beneficially entitled to the royalties or between both of them and some other person the amount of the royalties paid, having regard to what they are paid for, exceeds the amount which might have been expected to have been agreed upon by the payer and the person so entitled in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In that case, the excess part of the amount of the royalties paid shall remain taxable according to the law of each Contracting State, but subject to the other provisions of this Convention.

7. Without prejudice to whether or not such payments would be dealt with as royalties under this Article in the absence of this paragraph, the term "royalties" as used in this Article shall not include payments or credits made as consideration for the supply of, or the right to use, source code in a computer software program, provided that the right to use the source code is limited to such use as is necessary to enable effective operation of the program by the user.

8. Without prejudice to whether or not such payments would be dealt with as royalties under this Article in the absence of this paragraph, the term "royalties" as used in this Article shall include payments or credits, whether periodical or not, and however described or computed, to the extent to which they are made as consideration for:

a) the reception of, or the right to receive, visual images or sounds, or both, that are transmitted to the public by satellite or by cable, optic fibre or similar technology; or

b) the use of, or the right to use, in connection with television or radio broadcasting, visual images or sounds, or both, that are transmitted by satellite or by cable, optic fibre or similar technology; or

c) total or partial forbearance in respect of the use or supply of any property or right referred to in this paragraph.

Article 13[11]

Alienation of Property

1. Income, profits or gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of real property situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. Income, profits or gains from the alienation of property, other than real property, that forms part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or pertains to a fixed base available in that other State to a resident of the first-mentioned State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including income, profits or gains from the alienation of that permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise) or of that fixed base, may be taxed in that other State.

3. Income, profits or gains from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic, or of property, other than real property, pertaining to the operation of those ships or aircraft, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the enterprise alienating such ships, aircraft, or other property is a resident.

4. Income, profits or gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of any shares or other interests in a company, or of an interest of any kind in a partnership, trust or other entity, where the value of the assets of such entity is derived principally, whether directly or indirectly (including through one or more interposed entities, such as, for example, through a chain of companies), from real property situated in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.

5. Nothing in this Convention shall affect the application of a law of a Contracting State relating to the taxation of gains of a capital nature derived from the alienation of any property other than that to which any of the preceding paragraphs of this Article apply.

6. Where an individual who ceases to be a resident of a Contracting State, and immediately thereafter becomes a resident of the other Contracting State, is treated for the purposes of taxation in the first-mentioned State as having alienated a property and is taxed in that State by reason thereof, the individual may elect to be treated for the purposes of taxation in the other State as if the individual had, immediately before becoming a resident of that State, disposed of and re-acquired the property for an amount equal to its fair market value at that time.

Article 14

Independent Personal Services

1. Income derived by an individual who is a resident of one of the Contracting States in respect of professional services or other independent activities of a similar character shall be taxable only in that State unless he has a fixed base regularly available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities. If he has such a fixed base, the income may be taxed in the other State but only so much of it as is attributable to activities exercised from that fixed base.

2. The term "professional services" includes services performed in the exercise of independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants.

Article 15[12]

Dependent Personal Services

1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18 and 19, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by an individual who is a resident of one of the Contracting States in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived from that exercise may be taxed in that other State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if:

a) the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve month period commencing or ending in the year of income or taxation year of that other State; and

b) the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of that other State; and

c) the remuneration is not deductible in determining taxable profits of a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in that other State.

3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic by a resident of one of the Contracting States may be taxed in that State.

Article 16

Directors' Fees

Directors' fees and similar payments derived by a resident of one of the Contracting States in his capacity as a member of the board of directors of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

Article 17

Entertainers

1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 14 and 15, income derived by entertainers (such as theatrical, motion picture, radio or television artistes and musicians and athletes) from their personal activities as such may be taxed in the Contracting State in which these activities are exercised.

2. Where income in respect of the personal activities of an entertainer as such accrues not to the entertainer but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer are exercised.

3. The provisions of paragraph 2 shall not apply if it is established that neither the entertainer nor persons related to the entertainer, participate directly or indirectly in the profits of the other person referred to in that paragraph.

Article 18

Pensions and Annuities

1. Pensions and annuities arising in a Contracting State for the benefit of and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. Pensions and annuities arising in a Contracting State in a year of income or taxation year may be taxed in that State and according to the law of that State but the tax so charged shall not exceed the lesser of:

a) 15 per cent of the pension or annuity received in the year; and

b) the tax that would be payable in respect of the pension or annuity received in the year if the recipient were a resident of the Contracting State in which the pension or annuity arises.

However, the limitation on the tax that may be charged in the Contracting State in which pensions and annuities arise does not apply to payments of any kind under an income-averaging annuity contract.

3. Any alimony or other maintenance payment arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State, shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State.

Article 19

Government Service

1. Remuneration (other than a pension or annuity) paid by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to any individual in respect of services rendered in the discharge of governmental functions shall be taxable only in that other State. However, such remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that State and the recipient is a resident of that State who:

a) is a citizen of that State; or

b) did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of performing the services.

2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to remuneration in respect of services rendered in connection with any trade or business carried on by one of the Contracting States or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof. In such a case the provisions of Articles 15 and 16 shall apply.

Article 20

Students

Where a student who is a resident of one of the Contracting States or who was a resident of that State immediately before visiting the other Contracting State and who is temporarily present in the other State solely for the purpose of his education, receives payments from sources outside the other State for the purpose of his maintenance or education, those payments shall be exempt from tax in the other State.

Article 21

Income not Expressly Mentioned

1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2, items of income of a resident of one of the Contracting States which are not expressly mentioned in the foregoing Articles of this Convention shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.

2. However, if such income is derived by a resident of one of the Contracting States from sources in the other Contracting State, such income may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and, subject to paragraph 3, according to the law of that State.

3. Where the income is income derived from an estate or trust resident in Canada by a resident of Australia the Canadian tax on that income shall not exceed 15 per cent of the gross amount of the income if it is subject to tax in Australia.

4. The provisions of paragraph 3 shall not apply if the recipient of the income, being a resident of Australia, carries on in Canada a business through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in Canada professional services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or interest in the estate or trust in respect of which the income is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such a case, the provisions of Article 7 or 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

Article 22[13]

Source of Income

1. Income, profits or gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State which, under any one or more of Articles 6 to 8 and 10 to 19, may be taxed in the other Contracting State, shall for the purposes of the law of that other Contracting State relating to its tax be deemed to be income from sources in that other Contracting State.

2. Income, profits or gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State which, under any one or more of Articles 6 to 8 and 10 to 19, may be taxed in the other Contracting State, shall for the purposes of Article 23 and of the law of the first-mentioned Contracting State relating to its tax be deemed to be income from sources in the other Contracting State.

Chapter IV - Methods of Prevention of Double Taxation

Article 23[14]

Elimination of Double Taxation

1. In the case of Australia, double taxation shall be avoided as follows:

a) subject to the provisions of the law of Australia from time to time in force which relate to the allowance of a credit against Australian tax of tax paid in a country outside Australia (which shall not affect the general principle of this Article), Canadian tax paid under the law of Canada and in accordance with this Convention, whether directly or by deduction, in respect of income derived by a person who is a resident of Australia from sources in Canada shall be allowed as a credit against Australian tax payable in respect of that income;

b) subject to the provisions of the law of Australia from time to time in force which relate to the allowance of a credit against Australian tax of tax paid in a country outside Australia (which shall not affect the general principle of this Article), where a company which is a resident of Canada and is not a resident of Australia for the purposes of Australian tax pays a dividend to a company which is a resident of Australia and which controls directly or indirectly at least 10 per cent of the voting power of the first-mentioned company, the credit referred to in subparagraph (a) shall include the Canadian tax paid by that first-mentioned company in respect of that portion of its profits out of which the dividend is paid.

2. In the case of Canada, double taxation shall be avoided as follows:

a) subject to the existing provisions of the law of Canada regarding the deduction from tax payable in Canada of tax paid in a territory outside Canada and to any subsequent modification of those provisions (which shall not affect the general principle hereof) and unless a greater deduction or relief is provided under the laws of Canada, tax payable in Australia on profits, income or gains from sources in Australia shall be deducted from any Canadian tax payable in respect of such profits, income or gains;

b) subject to the existing provisions of the law of Canada regarding the allowance as a credit against Canadian tax of tax payable in a territory outside Canada and to any subsequent modification of those provisions (which shall not affect the general principle hereof) where a company which is a resident of Australia pays a dividend to a company which is a resident of Canada and which controls directly or indirectly at least 10 per cent of the voting power in the first-mentioned company, the credit shall take into account the tax payable in Australia by that first-mentioned company in respect of the profits out of which such dividend is paid; and

c) where, in accordance with any provision of this Convention, income derived by a resident of Canada is exempt from tax in Canada, Canada may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on other income, take into account the exempted income.

Chapter V - Special Provisions

Article 24[15]

Mutual Agreement Procedure

1. Where a resident of a Contracting State considers that the actions of the competent authority of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with this Convention, he may, without prejudice to the remedies provided by the national laws of those States, present his case in writing to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident.

2. The competent authority shall endeavour, if the taxpayer's claim appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at an appropriate solution, to resolve the case with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation not in accordance with this Convention.

3. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall jointly endeavour to resolve any difficulties or doubts arising as to the application of this Convention.

4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may consult together with respect of the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Convention.

5. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of giving effect to the provisions of this Convention.

6. For the purposes of paragraph 3 of Article XXII (Consultation) of the General Agreement on Trade in Services, the Contracting States agree that, notwithstanding that paragraph, any dispute between them as to whether a measure falls within the scope of this Convention may be brought before the Council for Trade in Services, as provided by that paragraph, only with the consent of both Contracting States. Any doubt as to the interpretation of this paragraph shall be resolved under paragraph 3 of this Article or, failing agreement under that procedure, pursuant to any other procedure agreed to by both Contracting States.

Article 25

Exchange of Information

1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is necessary for the carrying out of this Convention or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning the taxes to which this Convention applies insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to this Convention. The exchange of information is not restricted by Article 1. Any information received by the competent authority of a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) concerned with the assessment, collection or enforcement of the taxes to which this Convention applies, or with the determination of appeals in relation thereto, and shall be used only for such purposes.

2. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:

a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws or the administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;

b) to supply particulars which are not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;

c) to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or to supply information the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy.

Article 26

Diplomatic and Consular Officials

1. Nothing in this Convention shall affect the fiscal privileges of diplomatic or consular officials under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

2. This Convention shall not apply to International Organizations, to organs or officials thereof and to persons who are members of a diplomatic, consular or permanent mission of a third State, being present in a Contracting State and who are not liable in either Contracting State to the same obligations in relation to tax on their total world income as are residents thereof.

Article 26A[16]

Various Interests of Canadian Residents

Nothing in this Convention shall be construed as preventing Canada from imposing a tax on amounts included in the income of a resident of Canada with respect to a partnership, trust, or controlled foreign affiliate, in which that resident has an interest.".

Chapter VI - Final Provisions

Article 27

Entry into Force

1. This Convention shall come into force on the date on which the Government of Australia and the Government of Canada exchange notes through the diplomatic channel notifying each other that the last of such things has been done as is necessary to give this Convention the force of law in Australia and in Canada, as the case may be, and thereupon this Convention shall have effect:

a) in Australia:

(i) in respect of withholding tax on income that is derived by a non-resident, in respect of income derived on or after 1 July 1975.

(ii) in respect of other Australian tax, for any year of income beginning on or after 1 July 1975.

b) in Canada:

(i) in respect of tax withheld at the source on amounts paid or credited to non-residents on or after 1 January 1976.

(ii) in respect of other Canadian tax, for taxation years beginning on or after 1 January 1976.

2. Subject to paragraph 3 of this Article the Agreement between the Government of the Commonwealth of Australia and the Government of Canada for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income signed at Mont Tremblant on 1 October 1957 (in this Article referred to as "the 1957 Agreement") shall cease to have effect in relation to any tax in respect of which this Convention comes into effect in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article.

3. Where any provision of the 1957 Agreement would have afforded any greater relief from tax in one of the Contracting States than is afforded by this Convention, any such provision shall continue to have effect in that Contracting State:

a) in the case of Australia in respect of withholding tax on income that is derived by a non-resident, in respect of income derived during any financial year beginning before the date of signature of this Convention and, in respect of other Australian tax, for any year of income beginning before that date;

b) in the case of Canada in respect of tax withheld at the source on amounts paid or credited to non-residents before 31 December in the calendar year during which this Convention was signed and, in respect of other Canadian tax for any taxation year beginning on or before that date.

4. The 1957 Agreement shall terminate on the last date on which it has effect in accordance with the foregoing provisions of this Article.

Article 28

Termination

This Convention shall continue in effect indefinitely, but the Government of Australia or the Government of Canada may, on or before 30 June in any calendar year after the year 1983, give to the other Government through the diplomatic channel written notice of termination and, in the event, this Convention shall cease to be effective:

a) in Australia:

(i) in respect of withholding tax on income that is derived by a non-resident, in respect of income derived on or after 1 July in the calendar year next following that in which the notice of termination is given;

(ii) in respect of other Australian tax, for any year of income beginning on or after 1 July in the calendar year next following that in which the notice of termination is given;

b) in Canada:

(i) in respect of tax withheld at the source on amounts paid or credited to non-residents on or after 1 January in the second calendar year next following that in which the notice of termination is given;

(ii) in respect of other Canadian tax, for any taxation year beginning on or after 1 January in the second calendar year next following that in which the notice of termination is given.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorized thereto, have signed this Convention.

DONE in Canberra on the twenty-first day of May 1980 in the English and French languages, the two versions being equally authentic.

Edward C. Lumley

For the Government of Canada

John Howard

For the Government of Australia

 

 

 


Notes:

1. Article 2 appears as amended by the 2002 Protocol. [Return]

2. Subparagraphs 1a) and 1k) and paragraph 3 appear as amended by the 2002 Protocol. [Return]

3. Paragraphs 1 and 2 appear as amended by the 2002 Protocol. [Return]

4. Subparagraph 4b) appears as amended by the 2002 Protocol. [Return]

5. Article 6 appears as amended by the 2002 Protocol. [Return]

6. Paragraph 6 appears as amended by the 2002 Protocol and paragraph 8 was added by the 2002 Protocol. [Return]

7. Paragraph 4 appears as amended by the 2002 Protocol. [Return]

8. Paragraphs 2, 4, 6 and 7 appear as amended by the 2002 Protocol. [Return]

9.Paragraph 2 appears as amended by the 2002 Protocol. [Return]

10. Paragraph 3 appears as amended by the 2002 Protocol and paragraphs 7 and 8 were added by the 2002 Protocol. [Return]

11. This Article appears as amended by the 2002 Protocol. [Return]

12. This Article appears as amended by the 2002 Protocol. [Return]

13. Article 22 appears as amended by the 2002 Protocol. [Return]

14. Article 23 appears as amended by the 2002 Protocol. [Return]

15. Paragraph 6 added by the 2002 Protocol. [Return]

16. This Article added by the 2002 Protocol. [Return]